By Ekkehard Konig, Johan van der Auwera
Presents a different, updated survey of twelve Germanic languages from English and German to Faroese and Yiddish.
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Additional resources for The Germanic Languages (Routledge Language Family Series)
Throughout the interval from c. advert 500 to seven hundred, referred to as the 'syncopation period', Scandinavian underwent a few vital phonological adjustments, equivalent to the lack of vowels in unstressed syllables. This loss resulted in the phonologization of convinced allophonic editions. for instance, the plural of land used to be phonologically *landu, mentioned with a labialized ('rounded') root vowel, *[londu]. while the ultimate vowel used to be misplaced, the labialized root vowel turned the mark of the plural for this type of nouns, and the [o] turned a phoneme, written <ç>. usually, there are extra umlaut results within the West than within the East. within the japanese dialects of East Scandinavian there is not any α-umlaut, and just a couple of lines of «-umlaut. The i-umlaut, despite the fact that, turns out to have prolonged all through Scandinavia. All of those umlaut ideas have been effective at a interval sooner than that coated by way of our written documents; for this reason it isn't attainable to explain OLD AND heart SCANDINAVIAN forty-one the principles adequately. The ι-umlaut has nice results for the inflectional morphology of the Scandinavian languages, and is the foundation of significant morphophonemic changes, so one can be handled within the part on morphology (pp. 45-53). It was once - a minimum of in the course of a definite interval - delicate to syllable constitution, as a result it didn't practice in phrases with a quick root syllable the place the Ν used to be misplaced: stadr 'place* (< *stadiz). The α-umlaut has typically affected the lexicon, and performs a less significant function within the grammar of the languages. One umlaut rule remains to be a synchronic rule of outdated Norse, although, particularly the so-called more youthful m-umlaut, which alterations /a/ to /q/ in entrance of an unstressed /u/ in an inflectional finishing, as in dggum, the dative plural of dagr 'day'. This rule is so much continually utilized in Icelandic and in western Norwegian, much less so in japanese Norwegian, and in East Scandinavian basically in particular environments, reminiscent of throughout a nasal consonant. Breaking is one other impression of unstressed vowels on under pressure root vowels. Λ-breaking could switch a quick /e/ in a root syllable to /ia/ lower than the impression of a following /a/, as in hjarta 'heart'. t/-breaking is the w-umlauted version of this, because of an unique /u/ within the following syllable: jçrd 'earth' (< *erpu). through this procedure, preliminary /j/ used to be reintroduced into the language, after the lack of word-initial /j/ in old Scandinavian. Diphthongs There are 3 diphthongs in previous Norse: /aei/, /gu/, /aey/. the 1st one has constructed from historic Scandinavian /ai/ via a elevating of the 1st aspect below the impact from the second one (some form of ί-umlaut): /9u/ comes from /au/ via labialization of the 1st point lower than impact from the lui (some type of m-umlaut); /aey/ is the /-umlaut of /au/, /ae/ in /aey/ used to be additionally labialized, and the diphthong built into /0y/. In East Scandinavian the diphthongs have been monophthongized early on: /ai/ > /sei/ > /e:/, /au/ > /9u/ > /0:/, /ey/ > İ0yl > I01I. the fad began in Jutland and unfold progressively east via Denmark after which north via southern and crucial Sweden and to elements of jap Norway.