The Formation of the Hebrew Bible: A New Reconstruction

In The Formation of the Hebrew Bible David Carr rethinks either the equipment and old orientation issues for study into the expansion of the Hebrew Bible into its current shape. development on his previous paintings, Writing at the capsule of the guts (Oxford, 2005), he explores either the chances and bounds of reconstruction of pre-stages of the Bible. the strategy he advocates is a ''methodologically modest'' research of these pre-stages, using standards and types derived from his survey of documented examples of textual revision within the old close to East. the result's a brand new photograph of the formation of the Hebrew Bible, with insights at the preliminary emergence of Hebrew literary textuality, the improvement of the 1st Hexateuch, and the ultimate formation of the Hebrew Bible.

the place a few have recommended relationship the majority of the Hebrew Bible in one interval, no matter if quite early (Neo-Assyrian) or past due (Persian or Hellenistic), Carr uncovers particular facts that the Hebrew Bible includes texts courting throughout Israelite historical past, even the early pre-exilic interval (10th-9th centuries). He lines the influence of Neo-Assyrian imperialism on 8th and 7th century Israelite textuality. He makes use of reports of collective trauma to spot marks of the reshaping and number of traditions based on the destruction of Jerusalem and Babylonian exile. He develops an image of various Priestly reshaping of narrative and prophetic traditions within the moment Temple interval, together with the stream towards eschatological and apocalyptic subject matters and genres. And he makes use of manuscript facts from Qumran and the Septuagint to discover clues to the ultimate literary shaping of the proto-Masoretic textual content, most likely below the Hasmonean monarchy.

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Additionally, numerous Qumran manuscripts surveyed through Russell Hobson shield assorted divine designations, for instance, Gen 22:14 (Elohim in 4QGen-Exoda; Yhwh different traditions), Exod 9:30 (Adonay Yhwh in 4QExodc; Yhwh Elohim in different traditions), Exod 18:21 (Yhwh in 4QpaleoGen-Exodl; Elohim in different traditions), Num 23:3 (Elohim in 4QNumb, SamP, LXX; Yhwh in MT), Deut 5:24 (Yhwh in 4QDeutn; Elohim in different traditions), Deut 15:14 (Adonay in 1QDeutb; Yhwh in different traditions). eleven eventually, parallel biblical texts exhibit a few tendency to regard divine designations as interchangeable. There are the well known diversifications (in either instructions! ) in psalms: for instance, Elohim in playstation 70:2, 5//Yhwh in playstation 40:14, 17, yet Yhwh in 70:6b//Elohay in 40:18b (also Elohim 70:6a//Adonay 40:18a). moreover, the MT, 4QSama, and LXX witness to edition in divine designations within the culture for Samuel, for instance, Elohim in MT and Yhwh (or equivalents) in 4QSama and/or the LXX at 1 Sam 2:25; 10:26; 23:14, sixteen; the opposite in 1 Sam 2:1aα (reconstructed in 4QSama; θεω within the LXX of 2:1aβ//‫ יהוה‬in MT); 2 Sam 12:15 (‫ אלהים‬in eight. Jean Astruc, Conjectures sur les mémoires originaux dont il paroît que Moyse s’est servi pour composer le livre de l. a. Genése (Paris: Chez Fricx, 1999 [1753 original]), 138–40 [original 10–13]. nine. The connection with Michaelis comes from Johannes Dahse, Textkritische Materialien zur Hexateuchfrage (Giessen: Töpelmann, 1912), 14–15 (not on hand to this author). 10. For a vast survey of early questions surrounding the textual transmission of divine names, see Dahse, Textkritische Materialien, 13–52. eleven. accomplished as Russell Hobson, “The specified Transmission of Texts within the First Millenium BCE: An exam of the Cuneiform facts from Mesopotamia and the Torah Scrolls from the Western Shore of the lifeless Sea,” PhD diss. (Sydney: collage of Sydney, 2009), to be released by way of Equinox Press as Written and Checked in keeping with Its unique: Six reports at the Transmission of Authoritative Texts within the historical close to East. From Documented progress to technique in Reconstruction of progress ■ 107 4QSama; ‫ יהוה‬MT, LXX). 12 eventually, there appears to be like a widespread (though now not accomplished! ) tendency towards substitute of the Tetragrammaton at a few loci in Chronicles (e. g. , 1 Chr 14:10, eleven, 14, 15, 16//2 Sam 5:19, 20, 23, 24, 25; 1 Chr 16:1//2 Sam 6:17; 1 Chr 21:8//2 Sam 24:10; observe additionally 1 Chr 16:35//Ps 106:47 [ET 105:47]), whilst rather infrequently the connection is the opposite (1 Chr 17:1//2 Sam 7:2; see additionally 1 Chr 16:36//Ps 106:48 [ET 105:48]). to be certain, such situations are the minority one of the hundreds and hundreds of situations of upkeep of divine designation in those textual witnesses. Our present manuscripts merely supply perception into the final level of the textual transmission strategy. however, those examples exhibit that at the least a few old scribes taken care of divine designations as equivalents and substituted, even if consciously or unconsciously, the single for the opposite. In such situations, divine designations have been the kinds of interchangeable parts that have been at risk of reminiscence edition and different kinds of accidental textual fluidity.

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