The Cambridge History of the English Language, Volume 2: 1066-1476

By Norman Blake

Quantity II offers with the center English interval, nearly 1066-1476, and describes and analyzes advancements within the language from the Norman Conquest to the creation of printing. this era witnessed vital good points equivalent to the assimilation of French and the emergence of a customary number of English. There are chapters on phonology and morphology, syntax, dialectology, lexis and semantics, literary language, and onomastics. every one bankruptcy concludes with a piece on additional examining; and the quantity as an entire is supported by means of an in depth word list of linguistic phrases and a accomplished bibliography. The chapters are written via experts who're acquainted with sleek ways to the research of ancient linguistics.

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A 3rd issue, probably the main most probably, used to be the lifestyles in center English of Phonology and morphology types that had in previous English instances passed through voicing of preliminary fricatives. Many southern dialects had voiced not less than preliminary /f s/ — a improvement whose relics live to tell the tale nonetheless within the rural West kingdom ('Zummerzet'). This parallels, and will good stem from, a similar procedure in continental West Germanic: the < v > in G Vater 'father', now stated with /f/, and Du. preliminary < v > and < z > in vader and ^on ' solar' (/f s/ in additional innovating dialects, nonetheless /v z/ in conservative ones) mirror this. whereas the voicing in England was once almost always southern, it did expand good up into the midlands in Early heart English, and the normal nonetheless has a couple of varieties with voiced initials like vat, vixen, vane (OE fxt,jjxen,fand). touch among audio system of those dialects and others with no voicing could have facilitated borrowing of French /v z/, making them much less 'outlandish'. Be that because it may perhaps, through round 1250 / v / and / z / have been separate phonemes in foot-initial place. the advance of the / nine / : / 6 / distinction follows a distinct direction, when you consider that no [5] happened in personal loan phrases. it really is outstanding that sleek types with / nine / are contributors of a really constrained category, all in general happening below low sentence rigidity: deictics just like the, this, that, those, there, then, thou and some conjunctions like even though. this stuff underwent preliminary voicing rather overdue (around the fourteenth century); this can be most likely what Chaucer utilises in rhymes like sothe:to the 'sooth':'to thee'), the place sothe needs to be [so:da]. (b) the improvement of afinalvoice distinction is tied to the lack of ultimate / a / (see 2. five. three below), which most likely all started within the north and north midlands within the 12th century, and unfold southwards. The impact of this loss used to be to reveal in ultimate place voiced fricatives that have been initially medial. for instance, in OE nosu 'nose' we might have the subsequent improvement: [nozu] > [noza] > [no:za] > [nD:z]. The [z] right here (and likewise the [v] in love < lufu [luvu]) was once now loose to distinction with unvoiced fricatives within the related place. (c, d) The medial voice distinction is contingent at the lack of the size competition, as (23) may still point out. If lengthy unvoiced fricatives (the in simple terms unvoiced ones in medial place) shorten, the unique contrasts [s:]/[z], [f:]/[v], and so on. should be changed by way of [s]/[z], [f]/[v]. The double phonetic differentiation (length and voicing) is changed through voicing by myself. This shortening or degemination started within the north ca 1200, and prolonged southwards over the following centuries, most likely finishing in London round 1400. The outdated medial voicing rule was once now not effective, so the hot brief [f nine s] in foot-medial place stayed fifty nine Roger Lass unvoiced; we've got a whole voiced/voiceless competition in fricatives, parallel to the traditional one within the stops. those alterations reworked the previous English obstruent process right into a extra symmetrical (and less complicated) one, even more like latest.

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