Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English

* Over 350 tables and graphs convey the frequency of structures in numerous contexts, from dialog to fiction to educational prose * totally corpus-based with 6000 actual examples from the forty million-word Longman Spoken and Written English Corpus * indicates the explanations why we decide a selected constitution in a selected context * Compares British and American spoken and written English parts coated comprise uncomplicated grammar: description and distribution, key be aware sessions and their words and intricate buildings. every one zone is subdivided into extra exact content material.

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15 Non-clausal fabric 224 .............................................................................................. - ...................................................................................................... See web page xiii for contents intimately Clause v. non-clausal fabric Use of clauses v. non-clausal fabric in textual content samples to demonstrate the distribution of clauses in discourse, we will reassess the 2 pattern texts utilized in 2. 2. 1. 1. The verb phrqses are given in daring under, and the weather of an analogous clause are enclosed inside of brackets. be aware that there's numerous layers of embedding (cf. three. 10). textual content pattern 1: information record [Mr Ladislav Adamec, the Czechoslovak best Minister, threatened [to surrender] final evening, [as difficult bargaining persisted for a moment day with the competition over the form of the hot executive. ]] [Mr Adamec had talks with the competition chief, Mr Vaclav Havel, at the cupboard lineup. ] [He later went on nationwide tv [to nation [that he could stand down [unless his new executive won public backing. ]]]] ... [The competition Civic discussion board, [which rejected the Communist-dominated cupboard [unveiled by way of Mr Adamec on the weekend,]] is difficult a extra consultant govt [staffed ordinarily via specialists. ]] [Mr Adamec stated [that he used to be having difficulty [recruiting such specialists into the cupboard. ]]] [The leading Minister's risk seemed [to search a weakening of the competition demands,]] [but can also were directed at hardline parts within the Communist social gathering reluctant [to yield to any extent further to the competition. ]] textual content pattern 2: dialog IN A BARBER store A: [I will put,] [I will not smile. ] - [Tell me [what do you want now? ]] B: Erm - [shortened u p please Pete] - erm - [shaved somewhat on the again and facets] - [and then simply type of brushed again a the head a piece. ] A: correct, and [when you assert [shaved a bit bit]] B: Yeah yo- - [you kind of simply - acquired your factor] and zazoom! A: Yeah [but - is it that brief relatively? ] B: Yeah to-, yeah and that i A: [you desire a quantity 4? ] B: Yeah [I imagine so. ] 1 2 2 CLAUSE G R A M M A R Clause v. non-clausal fabric 1 2 1 A: So yeah, [I was once good pleased,] [cos you bear in mind [the time ahead of I acknowledged [I wasn't ideal. ]]] B: A: [That's correct] yeah - yeah - [[I suggest] i am being sincere. ] B: Yeah - mm. A: [But i used to be good proud of this one. ] B. Yeah. A: [I used to be] - [I concept [it regarded good]] - [and I thought,] [I used to be rather convinced [that it should remain in very well,] [you be aware of? ]] B: Mm. There are a few problems with research right here: remark clauses were hooked up to the clause they're relating to (3. eleven. 6), and coordinated clauses handled as self reliant. even if, the variations among the 2 samples are extraordinary. We detect, to begin with, that the dialog textual content includes a good buy of nonclausal fabric, whereas all of the phrases and words within the information textual content belong to clausal devices. moment, there are extra single-clause devices within the dialog textual content, that's additionally characterised through shorter clauses and a reduce measure of embedding.

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