By Niels Peter Lemche
Of the various old civilizations we're conscious of, few are smaller than the traditional country of Israel. Small either in geographical quarter and inhabitants, it was once slightly spotted by way of the key civilizations of the time in Egypt, Mesopotamia and in other places, which both missed or overwhelmed it. but, a number of millennia later, Israel is the civilization we take into accout so much acutely, which we all know – or imagine we all know – the main approximately, and which has even been revised after a way. lamentably, what we all know – or imagine we all know – approximately Israel comes in part from the outdated testomony and in part from fragmentary and occasionally distorted bits of old proof.
For those very purposes, simply because old Israel capability rather a lot to us and since we really understand so little evidently, this Dictionary is especially vital. It examines the standard assets within the previous testomony and surveys the findings of newer archaeological learn to aid us ascertain simply what occurred and while, a miles from walk in the park. It contains entries on lots of the individuals, locations, and occasions that are as a rule thought of, and exhibits extra generally what the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah have been like and what position they performed within the old international, however it additionally defines them as heavily as attainable in line with the most recent information. whereas the implications may perhaps range from conventional perspectives, they're crucial correctives.
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Extra resources for Historical Dictionary of Ancient Israel (Historical Dictionaries of Ancient Civilizations and Historical Eras)
A few of these purposes are according to a reevaluation of the archaeological fabric characteristically dated to the tenth century B. C. E. , together with many enormous structures previously attributed to Solomon yet more and more felt to belong to the time of the dynasty of Omri, but in addition concerning the very life of Jerusalem within the tenth century B. C. E. , that's now contested by way of a chain of archaeologists. a few students have pointed to the impossibility of an exceptional Israelite empire within the tenth century end result of the foreign political scenario at the moment, yet this proof is much less conclusive because the tenth century is normally thought of a “dark” interval which has left little within the method of written files or monuments. See additionally UNITED MONARCHY. EN-GEDI. A spring and oasis within the barren region of Judah just about the lifeless Sea c. fifty five kilometers southeast of Jerusalem. pointed out as a urban belonging to Judah (Josh 15:62), even supposing the payment during this position was once merely based c. six hundred B. C. E. En-Gedi (meaning “the Spring of Goats”) served as a spot of safe haven for David and his males whilst he was once fleeing from Saul (1 Sam 24). EPHRAIM (TRIBE). Ephraim used to be the eponymous father of the tribe of Ephraim. He was once the youngest son of Joseph and the brother of Manasseh (Gen 41:52; 48:5). despite being the minor, Ephraim was once blessed by means of his father. The tribe of Ephraim was once crucial tribe dwelling within the northern a part of the critical highlands of Palestine. it's been proposed that, traditionally, the identify of Ephraim can be in line with a geographical identify, the Mountains of Ephraim. If it is a right statement, the tribe of Ephraim could be of Palestinian starting place. The old starting place of the tribe can't be traced intimately, however it has to be with regards to the looks of an in depth village tradition within the highlands among 1200 and one thousand B. C. E. within the interval of the Monarchy, Ephraim turns out to have misplaced floor to its northern neighbor, the tribe of Manasseh. The capital of the Northern country of Israel used to be put, now not in the territory of Ephraim, yet on Manassite soil and this although Jeroboam, the 1st king of Israel, used to be a guy from the tribe of Ephraim. within the prophetic literature of the previous testomony, Ephraim is usually used as a moment identify of the dominion of Israel. EPHRAIM (PLACE NAME). The identify of where the place Absalom murdered his brother Amnon (2 Sam 13:23), commonly pointed out with Baal-Hazor 22 kilometers north of Jerusalem. EPHRATA. within the previous testomony Ephrata seems to be because the identify of a lineage or extended family inside of Caleb or Judah. This kinfolk workforce used to be comparable genealogically to the relatives of David. hence David’s father Jesse is reckoned between its contributors (1 Sam 17:12). even as Ephrata can also suggest the realm inhabited by way of this staff, together with Bethlehem, and eventually Bethlehem itself. EPHRON. A Hittite who offered his box with its cave to Abraham as Abraham’s grave cave (Gen 23). ESARHADDON. King of Assyria (681-669 B. C. E. ), the son and successor of Sennacherib. Esarhaddon was once appointed inheritor to the Assyrian throne through his father, who while missed his older brothers.