Berenike and the Ancient Maritime Spice Route

By Steven E. Sidebotham

The mythical overland silk street was once no longer the single technique to succeed in Asia for old tourists from the Mediterranean. throughout the Roman Empire’s heyday, both very important maritime routes reached from the Egyptian purple Sea around the Indian Ocean. the traditional urban of Berenike, situated nearly 500 miles south of today’s Suez Canal, was once an important port between those conduits. during this publication, Steven E. Sidebotham, the archaeologist who excavated Berenike, uncovers the function the town performed within the nearby, neighborhood, and “global” economies throughout the 8 centuries of its lifestyles. Sidebotham analyzes a number of the artifacts, botanical and faunal is still, and countless numbers of the texts he and his staff present in excavations, supplying a profoundly intimate glimpse of the folk who lived, labored, and died during this emporium among the classical Mediterranean international and Asia.

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Past due 1st century b. c. e. –early 1st century c. e. 2nd–4th century c. e. 1st–6th/7th (? ) century c. e. kind of website purple Sea port Praesidium/well off street 5 praesidia Cemetery close to highway Praesidium off street Tombs/road cease (? ) Gold-mining payment off highway cease on road/hafir Praesidium Praesidium Praesidium Praesidium Beryl/emerald-mining cost off highway street station Praesidium website identify Berenike Siket Wadi Abu Greiya (Vetus Hydreuma) Bint Abu Greiya Wadi Lahma Wadi Qabr Rijm/Shea’leq/Mkbea’/ Abu Ghurban Mweillah Wadi Khashir (Novum Hydreuma) Abu Ghalqa Abu Ghusun (Cabalsi) Abu Hegilig South Abu Hegilig North Wadi Duba’ Wadi Gemal East Wadi Gemal (Apollonos) Pottery and different Dates Ptolemaic–early Roman Ptolemaic Ptolemaic-early Roman-Islamic Ptolemaic-early Roman Pharaonic-Ptolemaic-early Roman Praesidium/gold mines on highway highway station highway station street station Fort/related positive aspects 11/18/10 Berenike–Koptos highway Barramiya Bir ‘Iayyan Abu Rahal Abu Rahal West al-Kanaïs (Hydreuma to epi tou Paneiou) ‘Abbad Apollonopolis Magna (Edfu) Sidebotham, Berenike 10:25 AM web page 133 Type of web site Cemetery Beryl/emerald-processing payment (? ) Beryl/emerald processing payment (? ) Beryl/emerald-processing settlements off highway Christian cost off highway Beryl/emerald-mining settlements off highway, attainable Christian cost Station close to highway Praesidium highway cease Praesidium cease on street Praesidium cease on highway highway station/animal tethering traces Praesidium Praesidium Marble quarry Praesidium Praesidium Praesidium Rock protect with graffiti/petroglyphs Christian cost (? ) De facto street stop/graffiti cease on highway website identify among Wadi Gemal and Gelli Kab Marfu’a/Wadi Gemal North Kab Marfu’a East Sikait, center Sikait, North Sikait, Wadi Umm Harba Umm Heiran Nugrus. Nugrus West, Abu Rushaid (Nugrus North) Hilan Umm Gariya/Umm Ushra Umm Kebash al-Dweig (Falacro ? ) Sha’it/Shay’iet Gerf (Aristonis) Rod Legaya Rod al-Buram Bezah Abu Greiya (Jovis/Dios) Gebel Rokham/Atafla Daghbag South Daghbag (Compasi? ) Khawr al-Jir (Aphrodito) Wadi Menih/Menih al-Heir Menih al-Heir South/Bir Menih Bawab Wadi Hima Berenike–Koptos highway (continued) 11/18/10 10:25 AM Early and overdue Roman Early Roman 1st–4th/5th century c. e. Early Roman Unknown 1st–2nd and 5th–6th/7th (? ) centuries c. e. Early Roman (? ) Classical-Hellenistic-early Roman (? ) 1st–2nd and 5th–6th centuries c. e. 1st–4th century c. e. Roman-modern Early Roman (? ) 1st century b. c. e. –early Roman 1st–2nd and fifth centuries c. e. higher Paleolithic-modern (much Roman) 5th–6th century c. e. payment (rock drawings = Pharaonic and later) Pharaonic-Roman doubtful Pottery and different Dates Early and overdue Roman 2nd–5th century c. e. 2nd–5th century c. e. 1st–6th century c. e. —Islamic (perhaps Ptolemaic) overdue Roman Early-late Roman Sidebotham, Berenike web page 134 1st century c. e. no less than and past due Roman 1st–2nd and fifth centuries c. e. or later Pharaonic-Roman-modern Praesidium/wells Praesidium Nile emporium Ptolemaic, early and overdue Roman Pharaonic-modern Praesidium fortress on highway Gold-mining cost close to street Gold-mining payment fortress on highway Gold mines/road cease tough stone quarry Fort/settlement on street Gold-mining cost Gold-mining payment a part of street fortress on highway highway station street station Fort/related gains Forts Nile emporium al-Dweig (Falacro)** Seyhrig Hamesh Sibrit Rod al-Legah Umm Garahish Rod al-Gamra Samut Samut North Dunqash increased highway section Abu Midrik Abu Rahal Abu Rahal West al-Kanaïs (Hydreuma to epi tou Paneiou) ‘Abbad Edfu (Apollonopolis Magna) 10:25 AM ** Stops/sites are just like the Berenike–Koptos street until eventually ad-Dweig (Falacro) 11/18/10 * shows function that's not extant.

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