Aristotle : History of Animals, Books I-III (Loeb Classical Library No. 437)

In History of Animals, Aristotle analyzes “differences”—in components, actions, modes of existence, and character—across the animal nation, in education for constructing their motives, that are the fear of his different zoological works. Over 500 species of animals are thought of: shellfish, bugs, birds, fish, reptiles, amphibians, and mammals—including people. In Books I–IV, Aristotle provides a comparative survey of inner and exterior physique elements, together with tissues and fluids, and of feel schools and voice. Books V–VI learn reproductive tools, breeding behavior, and embryogenesis in addition to a few secondary intercourse modifications. In Books VII–IX, Aristotle examines transformations between animals in feeding; in habitat, hibernation, migration; in enmities and sociability; in disposition (including variations concerning gender) and intelligence. right here too he describes the human reproductive procedure, notion, being pregnant, and obstetrics. ebook X establishes the female’s contribution to new release. The Loeb Classical Library® version of History of Animals is in 3 volumes. an entire index to all ten books is incorporated within the 3rd (Volume XI of the Aristotle edition). similar Volumes Aristotle’s organic corpus comprises not just History of Animals, but in addition Parts of Animals, circulation of Animals, development of Animals, Generation of Animals, and critical elements of On the Soul and Parva Naturalia. Aristotle’s normal methodology—“first we needs to clutch the variations, then try and notice the reasons” (Ha 1.6)—is utilized to the learn of vegetation by means of his more youthful co-worker and inheritor to his institution, Theophrastus: Enquiry into Plants reports modifications around the plant state, whereas De Causis Plantarum experiences their reasons. within the later historical international, either Pliny’s Natural History and Aelian’s On the features of Animals draw considerably on Aristotle’s organic paintings.

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If you happen to make a unexpected noise as they're flying overhead they enable drop whatever like water. nation humans, in regard to this, say that they're voiding urine, ie. that they've an excrement, and they feed upon dew. in case you current your finger to a cicada and bend again the end of it after which expand it back, it is going to suffer the presentation extra quietly than if you happen to have been to maintain your finger outstretched altogether; and it'll set to hiking your finger: for the creature is so weak-sighted that it'll take to mountain climbing your finger as if that have been a relocating leaf. 31 Of bugs that aren't carnivorous yet that survive the juices of residing flesh, equivalent to lice and fleas and insects, all, with out exception, generate what are known as 'nits', and those nits generate not anything. of those bugs the flea is generated out of the slightest quantity of putrefying subject; for at any place there's any dry excrement, a flea is bound to be discovered. insects are generated from the moisture of dwelling animals, because it dries up outdoor their our bodies. Lice are generated out of the flesh of animals. whilst lice are coming there's a form of small eruption noticeable, unaccompanied through any discharge of purulent subject; and, in the event you prick an animal while during this situation on the spot of eruption, the lice leap out. In a few males the looks of lice is a sickness, in instances the place the physique is surcharged with moisture; and, certainly, males were recognized to succumb to this louse-disease, as Alcman the poet and the Syrian Pherecydes are stated to have performed. furthermore, in convinced illnesses lice seem in nice abundance. there's additionally a species of louse known as the 'wild louse', and this can be tougher than the normal louse, and there's remarkable hassle in getting the outside rid of it. Boys' heads are apt to be awful, yet men's in much less measure; and ladies are extra topic to lice than males. yet, at any time when individuals are afflicted with awful heads, they're under commonly stricken with headache. And lice are generated in different animals than guy. For birds are infested with them; and pheasants, until they fresh themselves within the dirt, are literally destroyed by means of them. All different winged animals which are supplied with feathers are equally infested, and all hair-coated creatures additionally, with the only exception of the ass, that is infested neither with lice nor with ticks. farm animals endure either from lice and from ticks. Sheep and goats breed ticks, yet don't breed lice. Pigs breed lice huge and difficult. In canine are came upon the flea atypical to the animal, the Cynoroestes. In all animals which are topic to lice, the latter originate from the animals themselves. furthermore, in animals that shower in any respect, lice are greater than often considerable after they switch the water during which they shower. within the sea, lice are came across on fishes, yet they're generated now not out of the fish yet out of slime; and so they resemble multipedal wood-lice, in simple terms that their tail is flat. Sea-lice are uniform suit and common in locality, and are really a variety of at the physique of the crimson mullet.

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